Assortments of Thought

Peanut Butter Sandwiches

Posted on: August 17th, 2012

There are foods that are largely known and widely eaten, and then there’re foods that are no less enjoyed, yet far less common. Take, for instance, peanut butter sandwiches. Nearly everyone has had a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, but many other peanut butter sandwiches are out there as well, loved by those who know them, yet largely unknown to many others. Such is the case, for example, with peanut butter sandwiches that include banana, mayonnaise, or marshmallow creme, or even such diverse items as honey, bacon, pickles, tomato, and lettuce. These sandwiches appear to be regional in their appreciation–yet quite cherished within families, after having been passed down through generations–and this probably all came about as people began eating them for their cheap and readily-obtainable ingredients. The fact is, however, that not only are these “alternative” peanut butter sandwiches good, they continue to be simple and inexpensive snacks or meals, and, compared with many snack foods, they’re relatively nutritious too. Hence if you’re ever looking for something new to try, you just might want to give some of these sandwiches a shot–substituting almond or some other alternative nut butter if need be–taking part in a very special tradition in the process.

A variety of peanut butter sandwiches are indeed enjoyed, but they appear to be widely eaten only within the South or the Midwest, or–in the case of one particular sandwich–the Northeast, and, even then, known only to some people for having been passed down. Odd as it may sound, for instance, the peanut butter and pickle sandwich–typically made with a layer or two of either sweet or dill pickle slices–has received a lot of love, including as a sandwich that people grew up with. (See, for instance, the comments by EJ Cooksey, Margaret, Michelle, Scott, & Randy Lee and such on the post “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwiches,” by Jenn at Jenn Cooks. One additional citation is available in the endnote.) Then there’s the classic peanut butter, mayo, and lettuce sandwich–typically made with twice as much peanut butter as mayo, and debatably better-made with Miracle Whip instead–which seems to be a truly enjoyed and fondly-remembered sandwich, primarily known to Midwesterners. (See, for instance, the comments by booklady451, mojo6924, cindergriff, wagyourtail, & achtung781 and such on the recipe “Peanut Butter Mayonnaise and Lettuce Sandwich,” by Sandy on Sandy’s Site, plus one more.)

Further, the peanut butter and marshmallow creme sandwich, or, more properly, the Fluffernutter (marshmallow creme is basically spreadable marshmallow, while Marshmallow Fluff is a particular brand), is such an endearing childhood classic in New England (see, for instance, the page “Fluffernutter Sandwich,” sec. “What Is a Fluffernutter?”, by Linda Stradley at What’s Cooking America, plus one more) that some schools in Massachusetts at least even offer it for lunch (see the news story “Can This Spread Be Stopped?,” p. 1, by Philip McKenna at Boston.com). In fact, when one boy’s parent–and state senator–became offended in 2006 that his son was being served a Fluffernutter every day instead of more nutritious fare, his attempt to legislate a restriction on the serving of Fluff in schools caused quite a stir, even prompting one state representative to try legislating the Fluffernutter the official state sandwich. (See, for instance, the news story “A Political Kerfuffle Over Marshmallow Fluff,” by Katie Zezima at NYTimes.com, plus four more, lengthier accounts.) Nonetheless, it seems that Fluffernutters are indeed popular throughout the Northeast, and are even somewhat known in the Midwest and the South (see, for instance, the comments by Anonymous, Kiri, The Incredible Shrinking Family, Kate, & Kathleen and such on the post “Fluff,” by Mrs. Q at Fed Up With Lunch, plus one more), giving them perhaps the widest distribution of all the unusual peanut butter sandwiches.

Finally, perhaps the South has the most unusual peanut butter sandwiches of all. While direct sources are unfortunately scarce, the South does seem to have unusual sandwiches in general (see, for instance, most of the comments on the post “Fried Bologna & Other Southern Sandwiches,” by Christy Jordan at the Southern Plate), and peanut butter-wise, this seems to include, for instance, the peanut butter and onion sandwich. (See, for instance, the editorial “Strange Southern Sandwiches,” by Eva Moore at Free-Times.com). Then, of course, there’s the famous fried peanut butter and banana sandwich–known to many across the country if only because it was Elvis’ favorite–which is presumably just as traditionally Southern as were most of Elvis’ tastes. (See, for instance, citations on the page “Food Timeline FAQs: Sandwiches,” sec. “Elvis Presley’s Fried Peanut Butter and Banana Sandwich,” by Lynne Olver at The Food Timeline). Between all of its variants as well–including forms with bacon, honey, or mayo, with the banana sliced lengthwise, in rounds, or mashed–it actually accounts for quite a few peanut butter sandwiches in and of itself. Overall then, while a few people’s comments on the Internet can’t demonstrate anything to the extent that formal statistical surveying for instance could, the evidence nonetheless suggests that many peanut butter sandwiches are largely known only within particular regions of the country, yet where they are known, are often quite loved.

Of course, no peanut butter sandwiches were so cherished from the start. Like all “generational” foods, something beyond good taste had to make people keep eating them initially–to keep enjoying them–such that their places within family traditions would be secured. And while we may never know for sure how most peanut butter sandwiches originated, it seems that with only one clear exception, most became popular as cheap and easy meals, starting in the early 20th century. Certainly, peanut butter itself became affordable as soon as it was commercialized in the 1920s (as cited on the page “Food Timeline FAQs: Sandwiches,” sec. “Peanut Butter & Jelly,” by Lynne Olver at The Food Timeline), so by that point, all anyone had to do was choose a few additional, inexpensive ingredients, and there they had it: a cheap but tasty peanut butter sandwich. Regarding the many peanut butter sandwiches from the South, as Tina, for instance, of Mommy’s Kitchen says in her post “The Kings Famous Fried Peanut Butter & Banana Sandwiches“, the peanut butter and banana sandwich “is a classic of Southern po’ folks cuisine: two inexpensive common ingredients slapped on white bread and fried”. Indeed, many white and black Southerners alike struggled to get by as sharecroppers and such on wealthy landowners’ estates well into the 20th century, so it’s only natural that most Southerners of the time sought cheap and easy meals. Hence it seems extremely likely, in fact, that that’s why the South now boasts more peanut butter sandwiches than anywhere else.

Nonetheless, of course many people beyond the South endured financial hardships too, so some of them began eating peanut butter sandwiches over it as well. A great many people all over, for instance, became poor once the Great Depression hit in the ’30s, and as Floridave and mamaC have reported on the review pages for Jackie’s recipe “Peanut Butter, Mayonnaise, and Lettuce Sandwich” (pp. 5 & 3, at AllRecipes.com), peanut butter, mayo, and lettuce sandwiches “began to appear in the mid-1930s when … Depression-weary folks were looking for something cheap to eat” and “it was a depression era recipe for something nutritional and cheap” (one additional citation is available in the endnote). Further, it seems that the food rationing that took place during the Second World War steered some people toward peanut butter as well, as the comment by PhoebeHB, #31, on the post “Peanut Butter and Tomato on Toast,” by Nick at the Peanut Butter Boy indicates. Finally, even the nationally-acclaimed peanut butter and jelly sandwich seems to have caught on over rationing and frugality. To be sure, the introduction of sliced bread in the 1920s was a factor in making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches attractive for kids in particular, as cited on the page “Food Timeline FAQs: Sandwiches,” sec. “Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich,” by Lynne Olver at The Food Timeline. Nonetheless, kids and families alike apparently ate it over financial concerns during the Depression as well, and it’s even been suggested that it was veterans returning from WWII who made it’s popularity truly soar, as they themselves had grown use to eating it due to rationing. (See, for instance, the comment by Joyce on the page “History of Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich,” by Linda Stradley at What’s Cooking America, plus one more.) Indeed, considering that veterans returned to regions all across the country, this even seems to explain how the peanut butter and jelly sandwich became nationally dispersed, poised to achieve the fame that it long since has. Clearly then, most peanut butter sandwiches seem to have caught on as people sought frugal meals.

The only exception, in fact, seems to be the Fluffernutter, which makes a nice point of contrast to the many Southern peanut butter sandwiches. Specifically, during the 1910s and ’20s at least, marshmallow creme (and eventually Fluff) was marketed door-to-door in select Massachusetts towns, and considering that some associated publications suggested combining it with peanut butter (see the page “Fluffernutter Sandwich,” sec. “History of Marshmallow Creme/Fluff and Fluffernutter Sandwich,” by Linda Stradley at What’s Cooking America), presumably the peanut butter and marshmallow creme sandwich was marketed as well. Indeed, it’s the only peanut butter sandwich to have its own name, and in fact, the term “Fluffernutter” was coined around 1960 by an advertising agency (see the news story “Can This Spread be Stopped?” p. 2, by Philip McKenna at Boston.com), clearly suggesting that Fluffernutters were still being marketed even then. And, as the North had always been very much into business even from the days of the first colonies, the fact that it’s principal peanut butter sandwich was popularized through marketing–in sharp contrast to all the other known peanut butter sandwiches–seems only natural. Thus, whether through marketing or–far more commonly–practical frugality, it seems that all peanut butter sandwiches caught on for reasons beyond good taste, and, having long since been established, it seems that they’ve persisted not only for people’s appreciation of their flavors, but also for people’s many fond memories of them while growing up.

Now in the early 21st century, even as peanut butter sandwiches remain loved by those who’ve known them, so persist reasons that newcomers might like to try them as well. Indeed, not only do they taste good, they remain fairly inexpensive as snacks or even meals; they generally boast a fair amount of nutrition; and to at least try some of them, is to touch a very special tradition. First then, unless someone simply doesn’t like the flavors or textures of some of the ingredients involved (and for people allergic to peanuts, peanut butter alternatives like almond butter and sunflower seed butter are available), it’s reasonable to think that anyone who tries a given sandwich a couple of times will come to like it. Unusual food combinations can certainly be off-putting, yet it’s always nice to have more foods to choose from–even if new foods don’t ever become more than occasional snacks–and with so many unique combinations to choose from, there’s truly something for everyone.

Second, of course peanut butter sandwiches are still fairly inexpensive, so it’s possible that eating them–occasionally at least–will help cut down on one’s grocery bills, which, given the hard costs of living these days, is certainly welcome. Particularly for families with several kids, making peanut butter sandwiches is probably cheaper than buying large amounts of many snack foods, and, while all peanut butter sandwiches make good snacks, most of them are even suitable for breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Kids, for instance, might like the more sweet-and-sugary ones for all occasions, but even adults might not mind a Fluffernutter for a quick and easy breakfast, even if they prefer a peanut butter, mayo, and lettuce sandwich for lunch. And, the fried peanut butter and banana sandwich in particular seems like a sandwich that’s acceptable at all times of the day, for it’s even nice and warm for breakfast, yet filling and particularly nutritious for dinner.

Third, of course peanut butter sandwiches are relatively nutritious too. I won’t go into too much detail with this (given the many possible combinations, plus the fact that everyone has their own opinions on what’s truly healthy), but certainly, peanut butter itself boasts protein, fiber, mostly unsaturated fat, and several vitamins and minerals, and all for just a handful of calories. (See the editorial “Is Peanut Butter Healthy? Yes, Says the Harvard Heart Letter,” by Walter C. Willett at the Harvard Health Publications’ website. One additional citation is available in the endnote). And indeed, given that nuts and seeds are quite nutritious little foods overall, similar statements can probably be made for almond butter and sunflower butter as well. Further, of course bananas are a well-known healthy food; mayo contains all the nutritious goodness of eggs; and for all the sugar per calories, even jelly and marshmallow creme don’t contain anything inherently bad. Of course, frying or adding bacon might begin to make some peanut butter sandwiches less healthy, yet there too, given that most things are okay or even necessary in moderation, there shouldn’t be any big concern.

Finally, to eat different peanut butter sandwiches–or even just to try them–is to join a very special tradition. The unusual combinations of peanut butter with banana, bacon, mayonnaise, lettuce, and pickles and such may seem downright gross, yet such combinations probably arose from a need for cheap food. And as Christy Jordan says at the end of her post “Fried Bologna & Other Southern Sandwiches” at the Southern Plate, “when food was scarce, you could put something between two slices of bread, call it a sandwich, and then it suddenly seemed like a meal” (emphasis mine). In other words, no matter how strange such sandwiches may have sounded, they provided meals, meals to those who couldn’t afford much else. And then somewhere along the way, people realized that they actually tasted pretty good. Kids came to love the sweetness of peanut butter with jelly, while adults came to love the more sophisticated tastes of peanut butter with mayo, pickles, or lettuce. But, perhaps most significantly of all, families were brought closer together–closer for enjoying some good meals together at the dinner table–and all over the simple goodness of a few humble peanut butter sandwiches. Having become all that, there was just no way all these sandwiches weren’t going to be passed down to children, grandchildren, and beyond, eventually becoming the unique regional foods that they are today. And so peanut butter sandwiches are not only good, inexpensive, and healthy, but are products of very special, endearing traditions as well–loved even today by so many–so to at least give them a chance is, in and of itself, to do something very special.

Hence if you’re ever looking for something new to try, you just might want to give some of these “alternative” peanut butter sandwiches a shot. And in case you ever do decide to give some of them a shot, you should be sure, of course, to keep in mind all of the options that these sandwiches present. Nearly any type of bread is possible, for example, as is a wide variety of nut butters, from peanut butter on to almond butter (Barney Butter brand is good), sunflower butter (I’ve heard good things about SunButter), and even those new flavored hazelnut spreads by Jif (or else the classic, Nutella, even though it’s less a nut butter than a flavored spread). And as for the sandwich itself, the possibilities are truly endless, for not only are there the basic forms centered on one or two ingredients, you can even combine multiple ingredients together to suit your own tastes. Personally, I might recommend a Fluffernutter with honey (for honey is always a nice addition to peanut butter sandwiches, or at least to the sweeter ones, at any rate), or, better yet, a peanut butter and banana sandwich with mayo and honey, fried in a high-quality, virgin coconut oil (and rest assured that, taste-wise at least, the mayo is an important component, while coconut oil is mostly just an interesting alternative to margarine or butter). But–my own present favorites aside–certainly all peanut butter sandwiches have their appeal, so be it with banana, marshmallow creme, mayo, lettuce, pickles, bacon, or any number of other things, given that peanut butter is really just a simple, versatile spread, just be sure to keep in mind all of the delicious possibilities. (For some truly radical ideas, consider, for example, peanut butter with potato chips, horseradish, butter, fried eggs, bologna, or sardines, or, even one cook’s fried peanut butter and banana, cheddar cheese, and grilled red onions sandwich on rye. See, for instance, the comments by debbiel, Tom P, & chowhound36 on the forum “Peanut Butter, Bacon and Mayo Sandwich,” by LuluTheMagnificent at Chowhound Discussions. Four additional citations are available in the endnote.) For peanut butter sandwiches are indeed inexpensive, healthy, and–most importantly–good, so just as they’ve been cherished by many people for so many years, their special places within family traditions will surely carry on for generations to come.

Additional Citations:

1: On the love of peanut butter and pickle sandwiches, also see, for instance, the comments by jmnewel, fern, KaimukiMan, marsprincess, & NJP and such on the forum “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwich,” by schrutefarms at Chowhound Discussions. {Back}

2: On the love and Midwestern regionalism of peanut butter, mayo, and lettuce sandwiches, also see, for instance, the comments by hobey98, mamaC, shrubik, ruruhedgehog, & cookie_cooker and such on the review pages for the recipe “Peanut Butter, Mayonnaise, and Lettuce Sandwich”, pp. 1, 3, 5, 5, & 6, by Jackie at AllRecipes.com. {Back}

3: On the Northeastern regionalism of Fluffernutters, also see, for instance, the news story “Marshmallow Fluff is the Stuff Legislation is Made Of,” by Elizabeth Mehren at LATimes.com. {Back}

4: On the legislative battle over Fluff, for longer accounts with different angles, also see, for instance, the news story “Fight for Fluff! Sandwich Causes Sticky Debate,” by the Associated Press at http://www.MSNBC.msn.com; the news story “Can This Spread Be Stopped?” by Philip McKenna at Boston.com; the news story “Marshmallow Fluff is the Stuff Legislation is Made Of,” by Elizabeth Mehren at LATimes.com; and the page “Fluffernutter Sandwich,” by Linda Stradley at What’s Cooking America. {Back}

5: On the knowledge of Fluffernutters in the Midwest and the South, also see, for instance, the comments by markeckert2000, ECUgirl, The Precedent, snaggs, & jtslmn720 and such on the forum “Do You Know What Fluffernutter Is? Is It Just a New England Food?” by Luna the Dog at PocketFives.com. {Back}

6: On the appeal of peanut butter, mayo, and lettuce sandwiches during the 1930s and ’40s, also see, for instance, the comment by gramdee on the recipe “Peanut Butter Mayonnaise and Lettuce Sandwich,” by Sandy on Sandy’s Site. {Back}

7: On the spread of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches by returning WWII veterans, also see, for instance, the page “History of Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich,” by Linda Stradley at What’s Cooking America. {Back}

8: On the healthfulness of peanut butter, also see, for instance, the article “Peanut Butter Nutrition,” by Nicole Brender at LiveStrong.com. {Back}

9: On the more unusual peanut butter sandwich combinations, also see, for instance, the article “Beyond Jelly: Reinventing the Peanut Butter Sandwich,” by William I. Lengeman III at Epicurean.com; the article “Off the Beaten Path With Peanut Butter Sandwiches,” by John Dreyer at The Christian Science Monitor; the editorial “Strange Southern Sandwiches,” by Eva Moore at Free-Times.com; and the comments by mamachef & LorenM on the forum “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwich,” by schrutefarms at Chowhound Discussions. {Back}

References:

Anonymous, Kiri, The Incredible Shrinking Family, Kate, & Kathleen and such: Comments, July 23rd, 2010 through Oct. 5th, 2011, on “Fluff” by Mrs. Q, July 23rd, 2010, at Fed Up With Lunch as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://fedupwithlunch.com/2010/07/fluff/].

Associated Press: “Fight for Fluff! Sandwich Causes Sticky Debate,” June 20th, 2006, at http://www.MSNBC.msn.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13445850/ns/us_news-weird_news/t/fight-fluff-sandwich-causes-sticky-debate/#.UCDIC45tI20].

booklady451, mojo6294, cindergriff, wagyourtail, & achtung781 and such: Comments, Feb. 6th, 2008 through Nov. 23rd, 2010, on “Peanut Butter Mayonnaise and Lettuce Sandwich” by Sandy, April 23rd, 2004, on Sandy’s Site as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://sandyb.multiply.com/recipes/item/1/].

Brender, N: “Peanut Butter Nutrition,” June 14th, 2011, at LiveStrong.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.livestrong.com/article/265211-peanut-butter-nutrition/].

debbiel, Tom P, & chowhound36: Comments, Feb. 20th, 2007 through Jun 20th, 2007, on “Peanut Butter, Bacon and Mayo Sandwich” by LuluTheMagnificent, Feb. 19th, 2007, at Chowhound Discussions as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://chowhound.chow.com/topics/372681/].

Dreyer, J: “Off the Beaten Path With Peanut Butter Sandwiches,” March 12th, 2008, at The Christian Science Monitor as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/The-Home-Forum/2008/0312/p18s02-hfes.html].

EJ Cooksey, Margaret, Michelle, Scott, & Randy Lee and such: Comments, April 1st, 2008 through April 23rd, 2012, on “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwiches” by Jenn, March 31st, 2008, at Jenn Cooks as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.jenncooks.com/2008/03/31/peanut-butter-and-pickle-sandwiches/].

gramdee: Comment, Sept. 12th, 2008, on “Peanut Butter Mayonnaise and Lettuce Sandwich” by Sandy, April 23rd, 2004, at Sandy’s Site as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://sandyb.multiply.com/recipes/item/1/].

hobey98, mamaC, shrubik, ruruhedgehog, & cookie_cooker and such: Comments, June 3rd, 2007 through Feb. 5th, 2012, on the review pages for “Peanut Butter, Mayonnaise, and Lettuce Sandwich” by Jackie, at AllRecipes.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://allrecipes.com/recipe/peanut-butter-mayonnaise-and-lettuce-sandwich/reviews.aspx?SortBy=Date&Direction=Ascending&Page=1].

jmnewel, fern, KaimukiMan, marsprincess, & NJP and such: Comments, Aug. 27th, 2009 through Dec. 19th, 2010, on “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwich” by schrutefarms, Aug. 27th, 2009, at Chowhound Discussions as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://chowhound.chow.com/topics/647994].

Joyce: Comment, Aug. 5th, 2008, on “History of Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich” by Linda Stradley, 2004, at What’s Cooking America as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/Sandwiches/PeanutButterJellySandwich.htm].

Lengeman III, W.L: “Beyond Jelly: Reinventing the Peanut Butter Sandwich,” at Epicurean.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.epicurean.com/articles/beyond-jelly-reinventing-the-peanut-butter-sandwich.html].

mamaC & Floridave: Comments, June 3rd, 2008 and June 12th, 2011, on the review pages for “Peanut Butter, Mayonnaise, and Lettuce Sandwich” by Jackie, at AllRecipies.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://allrecipes.com/recipe/peanut-butter-mayonnaise-and-lettuce-sandwich/reviews.aspx?SortBy=Date&Direction=Ascending].

mamachef & LorenM: Comments, Dec. 19th, 2010 and May 22nd, 2011, on “Peanut Butter and Pickle Sandwich” by schrutefarms, Aug. 27th, 2009, at Chowhound Discussions as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://chowhound.chow.com/topics/647994/].

markeckert2000, ECUgirl, The Precedent, snaggs, & jtslmn720 and such: Comments, April 21st, 2010, on “Do You Know What Fluffernutter Is? Is It Just a New England Food?” by Luna the Dog, April 21st, 2010, at PocketFives.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.pocketfives.com/f13/do-you-know-what-fluffernutter-just-new-england-food-574180/].

McKenna, P: “Can This Spread be Stopped?” June 19th, 2006, at Boston.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2006/06/19/can_this_spread_be_stopped/?page=1].

Mehren, E: “Marshmallow Fluff is the Stuff Legislation if Made Of,” June 26th, 2006, at LATimes.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://articles.latimes.com/2006/jun/26/nation/na-fluff26].

Moore, E: “Strange Southern Sandwiches,” July 2009, at Free-Times.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.free-times.com/index.php?cat=121304064644348&z_Issue_ID=11012107094378610&ShowArchiveArticle_ID=11012107094614597&Year=2009].

PhoebeHB: Comment, on “Peanut Butter and Tomato on Toast” by Nick, Sept. 15th, at The Peanut Butter Boy as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.peanutbutterboy.com/peanut-butter-and-tomato-on-toast/].

Olver, L: “Food Timeline FAQs: Sandwiches,” 2000, at The Food Timeline as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodsandwiches.html].

Stradley, L: “Fluffernutter Sandwich,” 2004, at What’s Cooking America as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/FluffernutterSandwich.htm].

Stradley, L: “History of Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich,” 2004, at What’s Cooking America as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/Sandwiches/PeanutButterJellySandwich.htm].

Tina: “The Kings Famous Fried Peanut Butter & Banana Sandwiches,” July 30th, 2008, at Mommy’s Kitchen as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.mommyskitchen.net/2008/07/kings-famous-fried-peanut-butter-banana.html].

Various: Comments, on “Fried Bologna & Other Southern Sandwiches” by Christy Jordan, Sept. 2009, at the Southern Plate as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.southernplate.com/2009/09/fried-bologna-other-southern-sandwiches.html].

Willett, W.C: “Is Peanut Butter Healthy? Yes, Says the Harvard Health Letter,” July 2009, at the website of the Harvard Health Publications as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.health.harvard.edu/press_releases/Is-peanut-butter-healthy].

Zezima, K: “A Political Kerfuffle Over Marshmallow Fluff,” June 21st, 2006, at NYTimes.com as of Aug. 17th, 2012
[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/21/us/21fluff.html?_r=1].

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